The Psychology of Language, 3rd edition

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Chapter 1: The Study of Language


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1. Psychologists believe that we store representations of words in a mental dictionary. This mental dictionary is called a . (p.7)

2. morphology is concerned with changes to a word that do not alter its underlying meaning or its syntactic category. (p.5)

3. theory emphasized the role of probability and redundancy in language, and developed out of the demands of the fledgling telecommunications industry. (p.10)

4. In a model, information is allowed to flow from one level to the following level before it has completed its processing. (p.21)

5. The primary purpose of is to communicate, but we can also use it simply to express emotion, for social interaction, to make use of its sounds, to attempt to control the environment, to record facts, to think with, and to express identity. (p.3)

6. is the study of meaning.

7. A is a self-contained set of processes: It converts an input to an output, without any outside help for what goes on in between. (p.21)

8. The study of examines language itself. (p.4)

9. magnetic resonance imaging measures the energy released by hemoglobin molecules in the blood, and then works out the areas of the brain receiving the greatest amounts of blood and oxygen. (p.18)

10. Wernicke's area and Broca's area are connected by a tract of fibers called the fasciculus. (p.14)

11. The study of examines the role of different parts of the brain in behavior. (p.4)

12. The term " science" is used to cover the multidisciplinary approach to the study of the mind, with the disciplines including adult and developmental psychology, philosophy, linguistics, anthropology, neuropsychology, neuroscience, and artificial intelligence. (p.11)

13. The study of how words are built up from morphemes is called .

14. is the study of the psychological processes involved in language. (p.4)

15. A emission tomography (PET) scan produces pictures of the brain's activity by injecting a radioactive form of glucose, the metabolic fuel that the brain uses, into the blood. (p.18)

16. During magnetic stimulation (TMS) a powerful set of magnets is used to directly stimulate part of the cortex of a participant, and what that participant does or experiences is then recorded. (p.18)

17. are the pieces of evidence that have to be explained. Types of this include experimental results, case studies of people with brain damage, and brain scans. (p.4)

18. The general idea of is that if two things are similar to each other and are involved together in processing, they will either assist with or interfere with each other, but if they are unrelated, they will have no effect. (p.13)

19. The study of the of language emphasizes the components of the articulatory tract, such as the tongue and voicebox. (p.4)

20. Chomsky argued a new type of theory called grammar, which provided both an account of the underlying structure of language, and an account of people's knowledge of their language. (p.10)